Coronary Artery Disease. (CAD)

Coronary artery disease also called as
Artery heart disease (AHD) or Ischemic heart disease (IHD) , this is most common heart disease .Human heart working Continuesly throughout the life and arteries supplying oxygenated blood to the heart muscle .CAD happens when arteries damaged, narrowing from inside and building blocks (Plaque) in it. Because of this heart unable to get enough blood and oxygen.It may cause heart attack.

CAD is main leading cause of death globally, accounting for >9 million deaths in 2016 according to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates.


Angina: Chet pain and discomfort, You may also have pain in neck, jaw & arms.The pain may be caused by emotional and physical stress.

Shortness in breath ; When heart didn’t get enough blood and oxygen then you may get shortness in breath and fatigue.

Nausea or Vomiting

Rapidly increased heart rate

Heart attack : Heart attack happenes when heart didn’t get blood and oxygen due to blood cloting (plaques) completely obstructs coronary artery and heart muscle dies.

Cause & Risk factors

  • Heritability : Risk of CAD increased when your parents , brother, sis developed heart disease before age 55.
  • Your age: As you get older, your risk of heart disease increases
  • Your gender : Men over the age of 55 are at higher risk of heart disease. After menopause, a woman’s risk of heart disease gradually becomes the same as a man’s.
  • High blood pressure (Hypertension ) Is leading cause for heart disease. It dammage your blood vessels and makes your heart work harder.
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Absence of exercise
  • Obesity, Over weight.
  • Depression
  • Excessive Alcohol
  • Work stress.


Electrocardiogram(ECG or EKG) Is measuring the electrical activity of heart.Using the elwctrodes placed on skin.ECG use for detecting heart problem.

Echocardiogram:  In test uses high frequency sound waves to supply picture of your heart.It check how your heart working and also help to dignose the condition of your heart.

CT scan.
A computed tomography (CT) scan of the heart is use to imaging your heart. In this test uses x-rays to create picture of your heart and to check buildup of calcium in your heart arteries. This test evaluates if there is narrowing or a blockage in those arteries .

Stress test:
In a stress test doctor monitored your heart rhythm, blood pressure and breathing while you are doing physical activity and while you are resting. This test used to diagnose coronary artery disease .

Blood test: This test helps doctor to monitor cholesterol and sugar level in blood.


CAD treatment helps to reduce symptoms and future dangers of heart disease. Treatment is depend upon patients.self care is enough in some cases .In many cases self care not enough medication and surgery necessary.

Self care:
Quite smoking
: smoking tobacco is harmful to the health, it may cause CAD.
Diet: Eat healthy food that have low cholesterol and create less fat. Take sugar free diet those have diabetes.Use less salt in daily life.
Exercise: Do regular exercise,lose weight incase of the obesity or overweight.Go on walking stay active.
Limit the amount of alcohol intake. Avoid excessive amounts of alcohol intake.
Depression: Depression is common in people with heart problem.One in five (20%) people experience depression. Do good activity, involved in social events, do yoga, try to avoid overthinking, Stay relaxed.

After developing CAD patients needs medication.medication helps to maintain good health and avoid symptoms.
Statins : This medication use to lower cholesterol levels in blood. Person with high cholesterol need statin medication. It obstructs to develop cholesterol blocks in blood.

Blood thinning: The blood thinner medicine use to smoothing blood flow in arteries. This medicine avoid to create blood clot or getting bigger.

Beta- blockers :
This is helpful for CAD patients the main benefit of this is to reduce heart rate and significantly decrease blood pressure.

Medical process and Surgeries:
Angioplasty : Used for opening clogged arteries of heart. In this procedurea small balloon at the end of the catheter can be inflated for a short period of time to push the plaque back against the wall of the artery so that blood can flow better.

Coronary artery bypass graft:
Sometimes it’s hard to fix blocks and narrowing artery that time bypass surgery is necessary. In this graft procedure taking blood vessel from another part of body (eg. Chest, leg, arm) & attaching that vessel to coronary arteries above and below where the blockage.In this procedure you will be give medication so you will be relax but awake so you can follow instructions during procedure.It takes 30 to 90 min. It may longer if situation is complex. This surgery recovery time is 5-8 days at hospital and 1 to 3 months at home.

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